query

The most commonly used command to query the contents of directories is ls. Run without any arguments, it just shows the contents of the present working directory:

root:/var/run> ls
abrt              chronyd.pid        faillock       libvirt        mdadm
alsactl.pid       console            fsck           libvirtd.pid   mount
atd.pid           crond.pid          gdm            lock           mysqld
auditd.pid        cron.reboot        gssproxy.pid   log            netreport
autofs.fifo-misc  cups               gssproxy.sock  lvm            NetworkManager
autofs.fifo-net   dbus               hplip          lvmetad.pid    openvpn
autofs.pid        dhclient-wlo1.pid  httpd          mariadb        plymouth
autofs-running    dmeventd-client    initramfs      mcelog-client  ppp
avahi-daemon      dmeventd-server    libgpod        mcelog.pid     [...]

We can also give it one or more directories as arguments so that it lists their contents:

root:/var/run> ls /var/run /var/local
/var/local/:
rsync2nfs.exc
.
/var/run:
abrt              chronyd.pid        faillock       libvirt        mdadm
alsactl.pid       console            fsck           libvirtd.pid   mount
atd.pid           crond.pid          gdm            lock           mysqld
auditd.pid        cron.reboot        gssproxy.pid   log            netreport
autofs.fifo-misc  cups               gssproxy.sock  lvm            NetworkManager
autofs.fifo-net   dbus               hplip          lvmetad.pid    openvpn
autofs.pid        dhclient-wlo1.pid  httpd          mariadb        plymouth
autofs-running    dmeventd-client    initramfs      mcelog-client  ppp
avahi-daemon      dmeventd-server    libgpod        mcelog.pid     [...]

Some of the less common options would be:

marc:/usr/bin> ls -­l ­­--block­size=k /usr/bin      → size can be k, k or g but it'll be rounded up!
total 285712K
­-rwxr­-xr-­x. 1 root root       41K May 14 14:06 [
­­-rwxr­-xr-­x. 1 root root       12K Jan 20  2015 411toppm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       1K Dec 22  2014 4pane ­> 4Pane
­­-rwxr­-xr-­x. 1 root root    2818K Dec 22  2014 4Pane
­­-rwxr­-xr-­x. 1 root root      29K Aug 31  2014 a52dec
­­-rwxr­-xr-­x. 1 root root      52K Jul 17 09:04 ab
­­-rwxr­-xr-­x. 1 root root      11K Jul  1 07:00 abrt­action­analyze­backtrace
.
marc:/usr/bin> ls -­lh                           → better to use “­h” for human readable size
total 280M
-rwxr­-xr-­x. 1 root root     41K May 14 14:06 [
-rwxr-­xr-­x. 1 root root     12K Jan 20  2015 411toppm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       5 Dec 22  2014 4pane ­> 4Pane
-rwxr­-xr­-x. 1 root root    2.8M Dec 22  2014 4Pane
-rwxr­-xr­-x. 1 root root     29K Aug 31  2014 a52dec
-rwxr­-xr­-x. 1 root root     52K Jul 17 09:04 ab
-rwxr­-xr­-x. 1 root root     11K Jul  1 07:00 abrt­action­analyze­backtrace
-rwxr-­xr­-x. 1 root root     11K Jul  1 07:00 abrt­action­analyze­c
.
marc:/> ls --­­format=across
bin boot dev etc home lib lib64 lost+found media mnt nfs opt oracle proc root
run sbin sl7ora112 srv sys tmp usr var win7
.
marc:/> ls ­­--format=commas
bin, boot, dev, etc, home, lib, lib64, lost+found, media, mnt, nfs, opt, oracle, proc, root,
run, sbin, sl7ora112, srv, sys, tmp, usr, var, win7
.
marc:/> ls -­l --­­time­style='+%d­%M­%Y %H:%M:%S'   → same format as date command
total 48
lrwxrwxrwx.      1 root root       7    18­33­2014 12:33:17 bin ­> usr/bin
dr-­xr­-xr­-x.      5 root root    4096    28­08­2015 09:08:59 boot
drwxr­-xr-­x.     23 root root    3800    06­24­2015 11:24:07 dev
drwxr­-xr­-x.    151 root root    8192    07­07­2015 14:07:38 etc
drwxr-­xr­-x.      6 root root      52    24­25­2015 21:25:20 home
lrwxrwxrwx.      1 root root       7    18­33­2014 12:33:17 lib ­> usr/lib
lrwxrwxrwx.      1 root root       9    18­33­2014 12:33:17 lib64 ­> usr/lib64
drwx­­­­­------­.      2 root root       6    03­29­2014 20:29:57 lost+found
drwxr­-xr­-x.      2 root root       6    18­33­2014 12:33:17 media
drwxr­-xr­-x.      2 root root       6    18­33­2014 12:33:17 mnt
.
marc:/> ls -­l -­g -­G                            → ­g means “show no owner” and ­G “no group”
total 48
lrwxrwxrwx.       1       7 Nov 18  2014 bin ­> usr/bin
dr-­xr­-xr­-x.       5    4096 Sep 28 09:08 boot
drwxr­-xr-­x.      23    3800 Oct  6 11:24 dev
drwxr­-xr­-x.     151    8192 Oct  7 14:07 etc
drwxr-­xr­-x.       6      52 Sep 24 21:25 home
lrwxrwxrwx.       1       7 Nov 18  2014 lib ­> usr/lib
lrwxrwxrwx.       1       9 Nov 18  2014 lib64 ­> usr/lib64
drwx­­­­­­­­­­­------.       2       6 Dec  3  2014 lost+found
drwxr­-xr-­x.       2       6 Nov 18  2014 media
drwxr­-xr­-x.       2       6 Nov 18  2014 mnt
.
root:/var/run> ls -­l ­­--ignore=[b­z]*           → ignore entries matching the regexp
total 12
drwxr­-xr-­x.       2    root  root    100 Sep 26 17:29 abrt
-rw­­­­­­­­­­­­-------.       1    root  root     11 Sep 26 17:29 alsactl.pid
-rw­-r­­­­­--­­r­­­­­--­­.       1    root  root      5 Sep 26 17:29 atd.pid
-rw­-r­­­­­--­­r­­­­­--­­.       1    root  root      5 Sep 26 17:29 auditd.pid
drwxr­-xr-­x.       2    avahi avahi    80 Sep 26 17:29 avahi­daemon
drwxr­-xr­-x.       2    root  root     80 Sep 26 17:29 NetworkManager
.
root:/var/run> ls -­l --­­ignore=[b­z]* ­-i         → “­i”  shows the inode
total 12
28685  drwxr-­xr-­x. 2 root  root   100 Sep 26 17:29 abrt
23817  ­-rw­­­­­­­-------. 1 root  root    11 Sep 26 17:29 alsactl.pid
26044 ­ -rw­-r--­­r--­­. 1 root  root     5 Sep 26 17:29 atd.pid
10201 ­ -rw-­r--­­r--­­. 1 root  root     5 Sep 26 17:29 auditd.pid
23762  drwxr­-xr-­x. 2 avahi avahi   80 Sep 26 17:29 avahi­daemon
23179  drwxr­-xr­-x. 2 root  root    80 Sep 26 17:29 NetworkManager
.
root:/var/run> ls -­l ­--­ignore=[b­z]* -­i -­n      → “­n” shows numeric uid/gid
total 12
28685 drwxr-­xr-­x.    2  0  0  100 Sep 26 17:29 abrt
23817 ­-rw-------­­­­­­­.    1  0  0   11 Sep 26 17:29 alsactl.pid
26044 ­-rw­-r--­­r--­­.    1  0  0    5 Sep 26 17:29 atd.pid
10201 ­-rw-­r--­­r--­­.    1  0  0    5 Sep 26 17:29 auditd.pid
23762 drwxr-­xr­-x.    2 70 70   80 Sep 26 17:29 avahi­daemon
23179 drwxr­-xr-­x.    2  0  0   80 Sep 26 17:29 NetworkManager
.
root:/var/run> ls -­l ­­--ignore=[b­z]* ­-p         → “­p” appends a slash to folders for clarity
total 12
drwxr-­xr-­x. 2 root  root   100 Sep 26 17:29 abrt/
­-rw­­­­­­­-------. 1 root  root    11 Sep 26 17:29 alsactl.pid
­-rw­-r­­--r--­­. 1 root  root     5 Sep 26 17:29 atd.pid
­-rw-­r­­--r--­­. 1 root  root     5 Sep 26 17:29 auditd.pid
drwxr-­xr­-x. 2 avahi avahi   80 Sep 26 17:29 avahi­daemon/
drwxr­-xr-­x. 2 root  root    80 Sep 26 17:29 NetworkManager/

Another nice command to list directory structures and contents is tree:

root:/var/log> tree
.
├── anaconda
│   ├── anaconda.log
│   ├── ifcfg.log
│   ├── journal.log
│   ├── ks­script­7d3jGA.log
│   ├── packaging.log
│   ├── program.log
│   └── storage.log
├── audit [error opening dir]
├── boot.log
├── btmp
├── btmp­20151001
├── chrony
├── cluster
├── cups
│   ├── access_log
│   ├── page_log
├── intruder_alert.log
├── journal
│   └── 0473177a2c004ba7b87a9bb6ef882163
│       ├── system.journal
│       ├── user­1000.journal
│       └── user­1001.journal
├── lastlog
[...]

We can use it with a bunch of useful flags:

marc:/var/log> tree ­-a          → shows all files including hidden ones
marc:/var/log> tree ­-d          → shows only the directories
marc:/var/log> tree ­-f          → shows the fullpath for each item
marc:/var/log> tree ­-L 5         → shows up to 5 levels of subdirectories
marc:/var/log> tree ­-P [abc]*    → shows files/folders matching the given regexp
marc:/var/log> tree ­-I [abc]*   → ignores the files/folders matching the given regexp
marc:/var/log> tree ­-u          → shows the owner
marc:/var/log> tree ­-g          → shows the group
marc:/var/log> tree ­-s          → shows the size in bytes
marc:/var/log> tree ­-h          → shows the size in human readable format
marc:/var/log> tree ­­-du          → shows the size of files and cumulative size of directories
marc:/var/log> tree ­-D          → shows the last modification time
marc:/var/log> tree ­-Dc         → shows the last change time
marc:/var/log> tree ­­--inodes    → shows inode numbers
marc:/var/log> tree ­­--device     → shows device numbers

We use du to display the disk utilisation. Without any flags, it will list all the sizes of all the files/directories beneath the present working directory. Most of the time that is not what we need and we usually give it as an argument the filesystem to report:

root:/> du ­-sh /var
2.5G      /var

We used the “-s” to just get a grand total and the “-h” for human readable. Without the “-s” we might get a massive list with all the files & directories:

root:/var/log> du
27444    ./audit
0        ./chrony
0        ./cluster
40       ./cups
0        ./gdm
0        ./glusterfs
0        ./httpd
418140   ./journal/0473177a2c004ba7b87a9bb6ef882163
418144   ./journal
124      ./libvirt/qemu
124      ./libvirt
0        ./ppp
0        ./samba/old
0        ./samba
[...]
458036 .

We can specify what unit size we want to use (b, k, m)...

root> du -sb /var
1582141864    /var
.
root> du -sk /var
1574472   /var
.
root> du -sm /var
1538    /var

And we can exclude files/folders from the calculations with regexp...

root> du -sm --exclude="*.log" /var
1523      /var

We can also use du to count the number of inodes...

root:/> du ­-s ­­--inodes /var
13720   /var

Often we need to know the free space left in the different filesystems and we use df to do just that:

root:/> df                                  → default format
Filesystem             1K-­blocks       Used    Available    Use%    Mounted on
devtmpfs                 8089464          0      8089464      0%    /dev
tmpfs                    8100988      41020      8059968      1%    /dev/shm
tmpfs                    8100988       1204      8099784      1%    /run
tmpfs                    8100988          0      8100988      0%    /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/vg­root       7948288    6376692      1571596     81%    /
/dev/sdb1                4285612      53716      3991156      2%    /tmp
/dev/sda1                 487160       9800       477360      3%    /boot/efi
/dev/mapper/vg­home      31188092    5109112      26078980     17%    /home
/dev/mapper/vg­var        3950592    2518644      1431948     64%    /var
tmpfs                    1620200         36      1620164      1%    /run/user/1000
tmpfs                    1620200          0      1620200      0%    /run/user/0
.
root:/> df ­-h                               → human readable format
Filesystem                Size    Used    Avail    Use%    Mounted on
devtmpfs                  7.8G       0     7.8G      0%    /dev
tmpfs                     7.8G     41M     7.7G      1%    /dev/shm
tmpfs                     7.8G    1.2M     7.8G      1%    /run
tmpfs                     7.8G       0     7.8G      0%    /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/vg­root        7.6G    6.1G     1.5G     81%    /
/dev/sdb1                 4.1G     53M     3.9G      2%    /tmp
/dev/sda1                 476M    9.6M     467M      3%    /boot/efi
/dev/mapper/vg­home         30G    4.9G      25G     17%    /home
/dev/mapper/vg­var         3.8G    2.5G     1.4G     64%    /var
tmpfs                     1.6G     36K     1.6G      1%    /run/user/1000
tmpfs                     1.6G       0     1.6G      0%    /run/user/0
.
root:/> df ­-h -­x tmpfs -­x devtmpfs          → exclude filesystem types tmpfs/devtmpfs
Filesystem                Size    Used    Avail    Use%    Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg­root        7.6G    6.1G     1.5G     81%    /
/dev/sdb1                 4.1G     53M     3.9G      2%    /tmp
/dev/sda1                 476M    9.6M     467M      3%    /boot/efi
/dev/mapper/vg­home         30G    4.9G      25G     17%    /home
/dev/mapper/vg­var         3.8G    2.5G     1.4G     64%    /var
.
root:/> df ­­--inodes ­-x tmpfs ­-x devtmpfs    → show inodes utilisation
Filesystem                       Inodes      IUsed      IFree     IUse%    Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg­root              6466160     178893    6287267        3%    /
/dev/sdb1                        280560        105     280455        1%    /tmp
/dev/sda1                             0          0                   0 ­    /boot/efi
/dev/mapper/vgdata­sl7ora112     1572864         13    1572851        1%    /sl7ora112
/dev/mapper/vg­home             31203328      55548   31147780        1%    /home
/dev/mapper/vg­var               3960832      14430    3946402        1%    /var
.
root:/> df ­-h -­t xfs                       → show stats for just XFS filesystems (or ext3, ext4, vfat, etc)
Filesystem                   Size    Used    Avail    Use%    Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg­root           7.6G    6.1G     1.5G     81%    /
/dev/mapper/vg­home            30G    4.9G      25G     17%    /home
/dev/mapper/vg­var            3.8G    2.5G     1.4G     64%    /var

Another very handy command is file which shows us what type of file we have:

root:/tmp> file *
2resolv.txt:                                    ASCII text
bin.lst:                                        ASCII text
bla:                                            empty
evince­11037:                                    directory
hogsuspend:                                     fifo (named pipe)
insync1000.sock:                                socket
kde­marc:                                        directory
lost+found:                                     directory
OSL_PIPE_1000_SingleOfficeIPC_795936f7971:      socket
security_watchdog.odt:                          OpenDocument Text
security_watchdog.pdf:                          PDF document, version 1.4
ssh.pdf:                                        PDF document, version 1.4
strace.log:                                     ASCII text
trip:                                           ELF 64­bit LSB executable, x86­64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically
.                                               linked, interpreter /lib64/ld­linux­x86­64.so.2, for GNU/Linux
.                                               2.6.32, BuildID[sha1]=8e0dd6dfdc346d7041dbaa76fd7b, stripped
vmrc­plugin:                                     directory
vmware­root:                                     directory
yum_save_tx.2015­09­25.12­46.ahyIix.yumtx:         ASCII text, with very long lines

If the file is a binary, we can find out what shared libraries it is linked to with ldd:

root:/tmp> ldd -­v /usr/bin/tred
.        linux­vdso.so.1 => (0x00007fff88def000)
.        libcgraph.so.6 => /lib64/libcgraph.so.6 (0x00007f5c0a571000)
.        libcdt.so.5 => /lib64/libcdt.so.5 (0x00007f5c0a36a000)
.        libc.so.6 => /lib64/libc.so.6 (0x00007f5c09fac000)
.        /lib64/ld­linux­x86­64.so.2 (0x000055a9e35a1000)
.        Version information:
.        /usr/bin/tred:
.            libc.so.6 (GLIBC_2.3.4) => /lib64/libc.so.6
.            libc.so.6 (GLIBC_2.4) => /lib64/libc.so.6
.            libc.so.6 (GLIBC_2.2.5) => /lib64/libc.so.6
.        /lib64/libcgraph.so.6:
.            libc.so.6 (GLIBC_2.3) => /lib64/libc.so.6
.            libc.so.6 (GLIBC_2.7) => /lib64/libc.so.6
.            libc.so.6 (GLIBC_2.14) => /lib64/libc.so.6
.            libc.so.6 (GLIBC_2.4) => /lib64/libc.so.6
.            libc.so.6 (GLIBC_2.3.4) => /lib64/libc.so.6
.            libc.so.6 (GLIBC_2.2.5) => /lib64/libc.so.6
.        /lib64/libcdt.so.5:
.            libc.so.6 (GLIBC_2.4) => /lib64/libc.so.6
.            libc.so.6 (GLIBC_2.2.5) => /lib64/libc.so.6
.        /lib64/libc.so.6:
.            ld­linux­x86­64.so.2 (GLIBC_2.3) => /lib64/ld­linux­x86­64.so.2
.            ld­linux­x86­64.so.2 (GLIBC_PRIVATE) => /lib64/ld­linux­x86­64.so.2

If we need to dig out all the details of a certain file, usually from within a script, we can use stat:

marc:~> stat bin.lst
. File: ‘bin.lst’
. Size: 734             Blocks: 8 IO      Block: 4096     regular file
Device: fd0ch/64780d    Inode: 43552      Links: 1
Access: (0755/­rwxr­xr­x) Uid: ( 1000/ marc) Gid: ( 1000/ marc)
Context: unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0
Access: 2015­10­07-10:13:46.523433786 +0100
Modify: 2015­10­07-10:13:34.391368582 +0100
Change: 2015­10­07-10:13:34.466368985 +0100
Birth: ­-

The stat command is extremely useful within scripts as it allows us to extract any of the file properties and format the output in any way we need. First let's list the properties and then we'll see some examples:

The valid format sequences for files (without ­­file­system):
.
%a    access rights in octal
%A    access rights in human readable form
%b    number of blocks allocated (see %B)
%B    the size in bytes of each block reported by %b
%C    SELinux security context string
%d    device number in decimal
%D    device number in hex
%f    raw mode in hex
%F    file type
%g    group ID of owner
%G    group name of owner
%h    number of hard links
%i    inode number
%m    mount point
%n    file name
%N    quoted file name with dereference if symbolic link
%o    optimal I/O transfer size hint
%s    total size, in bytes
%t    major device type in hex, for character/block device special files
%T    minor device type in hex, for character/block device special files
%u    user ID of owner
%U    user name of owner
%w    time of file birth, human­readable; ­ if unknown
%W    time of file birth, seconds since Epoch; 0 if unknown
%x    time of last access, human­readable
%X    time of last access, seconds since Epoch
%y    time of last modification, human­readable
%Y    time of last modification, seconds since Epoch
%z    time of last change, human­readable
%Z    time of last change, seconds since Epoch
Valid format sequences for file systems:
.
%a    free blocks available to non­superuser
%b    total data blocks in file system
%c    total file nodes in file system
%d    free file nodes in file system
%f    free blocks in file system
%i    file system ID in hex
%l    maximum length of filenames
%n    file name
%s    block size (for faster transfers)
%S    fundamental block size (for block counts)
%t    file system type in hex
%T    file system type in human readable form

Let's see a couple of examples to get the idea of how to use it:

marc:~> stat ­­--format="File: %n, inode: %i, User: %U, Group: %G, Perm: %A, Size: %s" bin.lst
File: bin.lst, inode: 43552, User: marc, Group: marc, Perm: ­rwxr­xr­x, Size: 734
.
marc:~> stat ­­--format="Filesystem: %n, Free inodes: %d, Block­size: %S" /home
Filesystem: /home, Free inodes: 64780, Block­size: ?

Sooner or later we shall find ourselves in the position of not being able to unmount a filesystem because some process is using it. Or we will need to find who/what is using a certain file. When that happens we have fuser to save the day:

root:/tmp> fuser /run/libvirtd.pid         → who's accessing this file?
/run/libvirtd.pid: 1475
.
root:/tmp> fuser -­ki /tmp/test.1           → kill process accessing file but prompt first
/tmp/test.1:         1203
Kill process 1203 ? (y/N) y
.
root:/tmp> fuser ­-muv /var                 → list PID & users using /var in verbose mode
.                     USER      PID   ACCESS    COMMAND
/var:                 root   kernel   mount     (root)/var
.                     root      669   F...m     (root)systemd­journal
.                     root     1032   F....     (root)auditd
.                     root     1077   F....     (root)gssproxy
.                     root     1083   F....     (root)firewalld
.                     root     1103   f...m     (root)abrt­dump­journ
.                     marc     1141   ....m     (marc)vlc
.                     root     1482   ..c..     (root)atd
.                     root     1509   F....     (root)wpa_supplicant
.                     nobody   1684   F....     (nobody)dnsmasq
.                     colord   1816   F....     (colord)colord
.                     root     1873   F....     (root)packagekitd
[...]
.
root:/tmp> fuser -­uv /dev/tty*            → list processes using terminals
.               USER    PID   ACCESS  COMMAND
/dev/tty:       root  31326   f....    (root)less
/dev/tty1:      root   1584   F....    (root)Xorg.bin
/dev/tty6:      root   1061   F....    (root)systemd­logind
.
root:/tmp> fuser ­-uv 44525/tcp            → list processes using port/protocol
.               USER  PID  ACCESS  COMMAND
44525/tcp:      marc 2090  F....   (marc)chrome
.
root:/tmp> fuser ­-uv 51000/udp            → list processes using port/protocol
.               USER  PID  ACCESS  COMMAND
51000/udp:      marc 2090  F....   (marc)chrome

Another tool we can use to find out what process has what file lock is lslocks:

root:/boot> lslocks
COMMAND            PID  TYPE    SIZE MODE  M START      END        PATH
tracker-miner-a   2449 POSIX   60.4M READ  0 1073741826 1073742335 /home/marc/.cache/tracker/meta.db
tracker-miner-a   2449 POSIX     32K READ  0        128        128 /home/marc/.cache/tracker/meta.db-shm
chrome            2883 POSIX      0B WRITE 0          0          0 /home/marc/.config/google-chrome/Default/...
abrtd             1403 POSIX      5B WRITE 0          0          0 /run/abrt/abrtd.pid
libvirtd          1522 POSIX      4B WRITE 0          0          0 /run/libvirtd.pid
tracker-store     2469 POSIX   60.4M READ  0 1073741826 1073742335 /home/marc/.cache/tracker/meta.db
tracker-store     2469 POSIX     32K READ  0        128        128 /home/marc/.cache/tracker/meta.db-shm
tracker-extract   2453 POSIX   60.4M READ  0 1073741826 1073742335 /home/marc/.cache/tracker/meta.db
tracker-extract   2453 POSIX     32K READ  0        128        128 /home/marc/.cache/tracker/meta.db-shm
tracker-miner-u   2461 POSIX   60.4M READ  0 1073741826 1073742335 /home/marc/.cache/tracker/meta.db
tracker-miner-u   2461 POSIX     32K READ  0        128        128 /home/marc/.cache/tracker/meta.db-shm
chrome            2883 POSIX      0B WRITE 0          0          0 /home/marc/.config/google-chrome/Default/...
mysqld            1657 POSIX    128K WRITE 0          0          0 /var/lib/mysql/lostpenguin/lp_commentmeta.ibd
mysqld            1657 POSIX    112K WRITE 0          0          0 /var/lib/mysql/lostpenguin/lp_links.ibd
[...]

The SIZE column shows the file size. The M column indicates whether the lock is mandatory (1) or not (0).

The START/END columns indicates the byte offset of the lock. We can show the blocker (if any) and change the formatting of the output easily with the “-o” flag:

root:/tmp> lslocks -­o PATH,COMMAND,PID,TYPE,MODE,M,BLOCKER ­­--notruncate
PATH                                  COMMAND          PID TYPE  MODE  M BLOCKER
/run/libvirtd.pid                     libvirtd        1475 POSIX WRITE 0
/run/crond.pid                        crond           1483 FLOCK WRITE 0
/home/marc/.cache/tracker/meta.db     tracker­store    2672 POSIX READ  0
/home/marc/.cache/tracker/meta.db­shm  tracker­store    2672 POSIX READ  0
/home/marc/.cache/tracker/meta.db     tracker­miner­f   2666 POSIX READ  0
/home/marc/.cache/tracker/meta.db­shm  tracker­miner­f   2666 POSIX READ  0
/var/lib/ntop/macPrefix.db            ntop           14611 FLOCK WRITE 0
/var/lib/ntop/fingerprint.db          ntop           14611 FLOCK WRITE 0
/var/lib/ntop/hostSerials.db          ntop           14611 FLOCK WRITE 0

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